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General

Pakistan, achievements and challenges

Islamabad, Since the creation of Pakistan way back in 1947 the country has seen many ups and downs and still it is subject to many challenges.

Pakistan got independence and was declared a sovereign nation following the end of the British rule on 14th August 1947. Pakistan came into existence as a result of a movement under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Pakistan officially called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is the fifth-most populous country in the world with a population exceeding 200 million people.

The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures, including the Indus Valley Civilization, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans, and Sikhs.

Pakistan is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similarly diverse geography and wildlife. Pakistan adopted its first constitution in 1956.

When Pakistan was created in 1947, it faced many challenges and the most important one was the settlement of migrants coming from India to settle here. At the time of existence Pakistan had limited resources and it was very difficult for any country to run its affairs without any money.

The region of Kashmir is a core issue between India and Pakistan. Both the countries have fought three wars on the issues one in 1948, second in 1965 and third in 1971.

Approximately 45.1% of the Kashmir region is controlled by India whereas approximately 38.2% of the Kashmir region is controlled by Pakistan.

It is pertinent to mention that Bangladesh was also part of Pakistan until 1971. However due to some internal and external problems the Bangladeshi people decided to have their new country so Pakistan was broken in 1971.

The two countries have also involved in skirmishes in northern and southern parts but the Kargil issue of 1999 was a prominent one when world powers had to intervene into the matter to stop the two countries from starting a full fledge war.

Pakistan was established as a democracy however since its creation in 1947, Pakistan has spent several decades under military rule (1958 � 1971, 1977 � 1988, 1999 � 2008).

In 1972 Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto came to power and in 1973 Pakistan's elected parliament promulgated the 1973 Constitution which proclaimed that no Pakistani law could contradict Islamic laws from the Quran and Sunnah.

Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status.

Pakistan had also joined US led coalition in Afghanistan two times one against the Soviet invasion and the other in war against terrorism in 2001. The people of Pakistan believe that these wars were not Pakistan's wars and the country had to pay huge price of joining those wars.

Afghanistan and Pakistan have had their own historic rivalry over their border, the Durand Line, which numerous Afghan governments have refused to recognize as the border. This has led to strong tensions between the two countries and even military confrontations.

However, Pakistan continues to enjoy strong ties with Iran and China. Iran was the first country which recognized Pakistan as an independent state and since then the two countries have been tied in the eternal bond of friendship. The ties between the two countries grew even further in post-revolution era.

With China, Pakistan also have strong ties and in recent years both countries have signed China, Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC project which will link Pakistani port of Gwadar with China and also bring billions of dollars of investment in Pakistan.

Pakistan over all has good ties with the Islamic World, European Countries and Far East Asian Countries.

However its relationship with the US is full of ups and downs. Currently the ties between US and Pakistan are going through a difficult phase and the new US administration has ended military cooperation with the country along with cutting its financial aid.

Due to some tensions in ties with the US, Pakistan is tilting towards Russia. Both countries are taking various steps to improve their bilateral ties in all areas including defense cooperation.

There are various challenges which Pakistan has to face. Terrorism is the menace which has caused a lot of damage to the society of Pakistan. Though Pakistan army has carried out some successful operations against the terrorists and controlled the situation but still more steps need to be taken in this regard.

Energy crisis is also another issue haunting Pakistan. Pakistan has signed IP gas pipeline project which will bring Iranian gas to Pakistan, but still the project is not completed. The project would help Pakistan to overcome its energy crisis.

Water shortage is a new issue that has hit Pakistan. The depleting water resources are matter of concern for the country. Pakistan has to construct more water reservoirs to save the water from going into the waste.

A large number of Pakistanis are living in Europe, Americas, and the Middle East and contributing a lot to the economy of the country by sending heavy amounts in remittances.

Pakistan has a good number of resources and its geographical location makes the country very important in the world, but all depends on the leadership of Pakistan; if they take right decision at right time, the country can become one of the strongest countries of the world.

Source: Islamic Republic News Agency - IRNA


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